|Journal||Journal of Mechanical Engineering – Problemy Mashynobuduvannia|
|Publisher||A. Podgorny Institute for Mechanical Engineering Problems
National Academy of Science of Ukraine
|ISSN||0131-2928 (Print), 2411-0779 (Online)|
|Issue||Vol. 21, no. 1, 2018 (March)|
|Cited by||J. of Mech. Eng., 2018, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 49-54|
V. V. Solovei, A. Podgorny Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharsky str., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukraine), e-mail: email@example.com, ORCID: 0000-0002-5444-8922
A. N. Avramenko, A. Podgorny Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharsky str., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukraine), ORCID: 0000-0003-1993-6311
A. M. Lievtierov, A. Podgorny Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharsky str., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukraine), ORCID: 0000-0001-5308-1375
K. R. Umerenkova, A. Podgorny Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharsky str., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukraine), ORCID: 0000-0002-3654-4814
The effect of hydrogen activation by metal hydrides is considered. It is established that activated hydrogen exists in different forms: in the form of excited H2 molecules, excited hydrogen atoms and positive ions. To study the activation of hydrogen, various methods of mass spectrometry were used. The reasons for the formation of activated hydrogen in interaction with hydride-forming materials are discussed. For hydride-forming materials, one of the possible factors leading to the activation of hydrogen followed by desorption into the gas phase is isobaric hysteresis. Hysteresis in metal-hydrogen systems occurs when the pressure of hydride formation is higher than the pressure of its decomposition. The use of the phenomenon of metal hydride activation can improve the energy characteristics of virtually all types of energy-converting devices using hydrogen as a working fluid. This effect can be used in reactions of heterogeneous catalysis, in particular, in the ignition of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures, in devices using hydrogen as a working medium, as an environmentally friendly energy carrier in engines or in power and electro-physical facilities. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the use of atoms and excited hydrogen molecules as an activation ionic additive to traditional fuels leads not only to saving the latter but also to reducing the content of toxic products in the exhaust gases. A small (0.5 %) admixture of atomic hydrogen in the combustion zone is just as effective as the addition of 10 – 12 % of ordinary molecular hydrogen. The use of excitation energy for nonequilibrium states of hydrogen appears to be one of the most promising ways to solve the problem of increasing the efficiency of energy equipment and improving its environmental characteristics.
Keywords: hydrogen; metal hydride; atomic hydrogen emission; activation; mass spectrometry; gas discharge; excitation energy
Full text: Download in PDF
- Shmalko, Yu. F., Lototsky, M. V., & Klochko, Ye. V. (1995). The formation of excited H species using metal hydrides. J. Alloys and Compaunds, vol. 231, pp. 856–859. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-8388(95)01772-0
- Lobashina, N. E., Savvin, N. N., & Myasnikov, I. A. (1984). Issledovanie mehanizma spillovera H2 na nanesennyh metallicheskih katalizatorah [Investigation of the mechanism of H2 spillover on sprayed metallic catalysts]. Kinetika i kataliz – Kinetics and Catalysis, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 502–504 (in Russian).
- Leonova, G. I. (1989). Kataliticheskoe vosstanovlenie aromaticheskih nitrosoedinenij na gidridah intermetallidov na osnove LaNi5, modificirovannyh ceriem i med’ju: Avtoref. dis. … kand. him. nauk. [The catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds by intermetallic hydrides based LaNi5, modified cerium and copper: Avtoref. Ph.D. Diss.]. Moscow: MGU Publ. (in Russian).
- Basteev, A., Popov, V., Prognimak, A., Solovei, V., & Kleperis, J. (1993). The Effect of Hydrogen (Deuterium) Activation During the Interaction with Some Transition Metal Surfaces. Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie. Munchen, Bd 181, pp. 313–319. https://doi.org/10.1524/zpch.1993.181.Part_1_2.313
- Allan, M. & Wong, S. F. (1978). Effect of Vibrational Exitation on Dissociative Attachment in Hydrogen. Phys. Rev. Letters, vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 1791–1794. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.41.1791
- Borisko, V. N., Klochko, Ye. V., & Lotolsky, M. V. (1998). Tehnologicheskij plazmennyj istochnik otricatel’nyh ionov [Technological plasma source of negative ions]. Vopr. atomn. nauki i tehniki. Ser. Fizika radiacionnyh povrezhdenij i radiacionnoe materialovedenie – VANT Ser. The physics of radiation damages and radiation materials science, vol. 3 (69), vol. 4 (70), pp. 179–182 (in Russian).
- Shmalko, Yu. F., Solovey, V. V., Lototsky, M. V., & Klochko, Ye. V. (1995). Mass-spectrometry determination of vibrationally excited states of molecules hydrogen desorbed from the surface of metal hydrides. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 357–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3199(94)00058-8
- Gaydon, A. (1949). Jenergii dissociacii i spektry dvuhatomnyh molekul [Dissociation energy and spectra of diatomic molecules]. Moscow: Inostr. lit. Publ. (in Russian).
- Huber, K. P. & Herzberg, G. (1979). Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, vol. IV. Constants of Diatomic Molecules. New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0961-2
- Popov, V. V., Basteev, A. V., & Solovey, V. V. (1996). The effect of metal-hydride activation of hydrogen and investigation of its influence on the characteristics of gas- discharge hydrogen-using energy conversion devices. Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3199(95)00096-8
- Alefeld, G. & Felkl, I. (1981). Vodorod v metallah [Hydrogen in Metals]. Moscow: Mir, vol. 2 (in Russian).
- Deryagin, B. V., Kluycv, V. A., & Upson, A. G. (1986). O vozmozhnosti jadernyh reakcij pri razrushenii tverdyh tel [On possible nuclear reactions at failure of solids]. Kolloidnyj zhurnal – Colloid Journal, vol. 48, pp. 12–14 (in Russian).
- Podgorny, A. N., Solovey, V. V., & Lotolsky, M. V. (1987). Aktivirovanie vodoroda v sistemah vodorod – gidrid intermetallida [Hydrogen activation in hydrogen – intermetallic hydride systems]. Vopr. atom. nauki i tehniki. Ser. Atom.-vodorod. jenergetika i tehnologija – VANT Ser. Atomic hydrogen power and engineering, no. 1, pp. 68–72 (in Russian).
Received 24 January 2018
Published 30 March 2018