Journal Journal of Mechanical Engineering
Publisher A. Podgorny Institute for Mechanical Engineering Problems
National Academy of Science of Ukraine
ISSN 0131-2928 (Print), 2411-0779 (Online)
Issue Vol. 21, no. 2, 2018 (June)
Pages 3-11
Cited by J. of Mech. Eng., 2018, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 3-11



V. G. Martynenko, National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, (2, Kyrpychova St., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine), e-mail:, ORCID: 0000-0002-9471-0905

Yu. N. Ulianov, National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, (2, Kyrpychova St., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine), e-mail:



 The paper describes the process of modernizing the existing installation designed for performing long-term tests of steel and aluminum cylindrical specimens for high-temperature creep with the purpose of conducting the experimental studies of the anisotropic strength and viscoelastic characteristics of planar composite specimens at elevated temperatures. In view of the differences in the approaches to finding the mechanical properties of metals and composite materials, the modernization required that special methods be developed for its implementation. In order to achieve the objective set, a scheme for reconstructing the specimen holders in the experimental installation was proposed, as well as the method of fixing them, implementing uniaxial stress-stain state and enabling  one to avoid stress concentration where the grippers are used. The specimens for the experiment were cut out in accordance with their optimal shape from one sheet of orthogonally reinforced composite material at different angles to the reinforcement direction, which allowed obtaining their anisotropic mechanical properties. The preparation of the specimens for conducting the experimental study was performed in accordance with international standards, which ensured the accuracy of obtaining the desired mechanical quantities. The developed, designed and built automatic temperature control block for the electric furnace allowed maintaining elevated temperature with a sufficiently small error during its long use, which was necessary for studying the mechanical properties of composite specimens, as well as regulating the heating temperature in a given range. When performing a series of experiments, an optimal temperature was chosen that was higher than the glass transition temperature of the composite material and lower than its phase transition temperature. Its observance made it possible to measure the viscoelastic properties of the composite with a high accuracy when the relaxation time reached half of the measuring period and guarantee a complete construction of creep curves. Conducting the experimental study of the instantaneous and long-term mechanical properties demonstrated the effectiveness of the improvements made for the experimental installation, as applied to the realization of such experiments. The developed procedure can be used for finding the anisotropic vicoelastic properties of the composite materials dependent on time and temperature, as well as setting the level of anisotropy of such properties for its subsequent consideration in the mathematical models of the mechanical behaviour of structural and installation elements made of composite materials.


Keywords: anisotropic viscoelasticity, composite material, experimental investigation, elevated temperature, relaxation curve


Full text: Download in PDF



  1. Lubin, G. (Ed.) (1988). Spravochnik po kompozitsionnym materialam [Handbook of Composite Materials]. Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye (in Russian).
  2. Karpinos, D. M. (1985). Kompozitsionnye materialy. Spravochnik [Composite Materials. Directory]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Russian).
  3. Kravchuk, A. S., Mayboroda, V. P., & Urzhumtsev, Yu.S. (1985). Mekhanika polimernykh i kompozitsionnykh materialov [Mechanics of Polymer and Composite Materials]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
  4. Kapitonov, A. M & Redkin, V. Ye. (2013). Fiziko-mekhanicheskie svoystva kompozitsionnykh materialov [Physico-Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials. Elastic Properties]. Krasnoyarsk: Siberian Federal University (in Russian).
  5. Poberdrya, B. Ye. (1984). Mekhanika kompozitsionnykh materialov [Mechanics of Composite Materials]. Moscow: Moscow University (in Russian).
  6. Ward, (1975). Mekhanicheskie svoystva tverdykh polimerov [Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers]. Moscow: Khimiya (in Russian).
  7. Shen, M. (1974). Vyazkouprugaya relaksatsiya v polimerakh [Viscoelastic Relaxation in Polymers]. Moscow: Mir (in Russian).
  8. Christensen, R. M. (1974). Vvedenie v teoriyu vyazkouprugosti [Introduction to the Theory of Viscoelasticity]. Moskow: Mir (in Russian).
  9. Adamov, A. A. & Matveenko, V. P. (2003). Metody prikladnoy vyazkouprugosti [Methods of Applied Viscoelasticity]. Ekaterinburg: UB RAS Publ. (in Russian).
  10. Abot, J., Yasmin, A., & Jacobsen, A. (2004). In-Plane Mechanical, Thermal and Viscoelastic Properties of a Satin Fabric Carbon/Epoxy Composite. Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 64, pp. 263–268.
  11. Chan, A., Liu, X. L., & Chiu, W. K. (2006). Viscoelastic Interlaminar Shear Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Composites. Compos. Struct., vol. 75, pp. 185–191.
  12. Guojun, H. (2006). A Theoretical and Numerical Study of Crack Propagation Along a Bimaterial Interface with Applications to IC Packaging: a thesis … doctor of philosophy in engineering (Doctor thesis). National University of Singapore.
  13. Silva, P., Valente, T., & Azenha, M. (2017). Viscoelastic Response of an Epoxy Adhesive for Construction since Its Early Ages: Experiments and Modelling. Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 116, pp. 266–277.
  14. Seifert, O. E., Schumacher, S. C., & Hansen, A. C. (2003). Viscoelastic Properties of a Glass Fabric Composite at Elevated Temperatures: Experimental and Numerical Results. Compos. Part B. Eng., vol. 34, pp. 571–586.
  15. Ciambella, J., Paolone, A., & Vidoli, S. (2010). A Comparison of Nonlinear Integral-Based Viscoelastic Models Through Compression Tests on Filled Rubber. Mech. Mater., vol. 42, pp. 932–944.
  16. Stanier, D. C., Patil, A. J., & Sriwong, C. (2014). The Reinforcement Effect of Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets on the Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Natural Rubber. Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 95, pp. 59–66.
  17. Shrotriya, P. & Sottos, N. (2004). Viscoelastic Response of Woven Composite Substrates. Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 65, pp. 621–634.
  18. Park, S. J., Liechti, K. M., & Roy, S. (2004). Simplified Bulk Experiments and Hygrothermal Nonlinear Viscoelasticity. Mech. Time-Dependent Mater., vol. 8, pp. 303–344.
  19. Tzeng, J. T., Emerson, R. P., & O’Brien, D. J. (2012). Viscoelasticity Analysis and Experimental Validation of Anisotropic Composite Overwrap Cylinders. Mech. Solids, Struct. Fluids, ASME, vol. 8, pp. 1–8.
  20. Kluev, V. (1982). Ispytatelnaya tekhnika: Spravochnik [Testing Equipment: Hanbook]. Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye (in Russian).
  21. Sathishkumar, T., Satheeshkumar, S., & Naveen, J. (2014). Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites – a Review. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., vol. 33, pp. 1258–1275.
  22. Stickel, J. M. & Nagarajan, M. (2012). Glass Fiber-reinforced Composites: From Formulation to Application. Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 122–136.
  23. Yamini, S. & Young, R. J. (1980). The Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resins. J. Mater. Sci., vol. 15, pp. 1823–1831.
  24. Jordan, J. L. & Foley, J. L. (2008). Mechanical Properties of Epon 826/DEA Epoxy. Mech. Time-Dependent Mater., vol. 12, pp. 249–272.
  25. Ou, Y., Zhu, D., Zhang, H., Huang, L., Yao, Y., & Li, G. (2016). Mechanical Characterization of the Tensile Properties of Glass Fiber and Its Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composite Under Varying Strain Rates and Temperatures. Polymers, vol. 8, pp. 1–16.
  26. Dogan, A. & Atas, C. (2016). Variation of the Mechanical Properties of E-Glass/Epoxy Composites Subjected to Hygrothermal Aging. J. Compos. Mater., vol. 50, pp. 637–646.
  27. Ferry, J. D. (1980). Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons.
  28. ASTM D618-13 (2013). Standard Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing. Am. Soc. Test. Mater.
  29. ASTM D638-14 (2014). Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics. Am. Soc. Test. Mater.
  30. ASTM D2990-17 (2017). Standard Test Methods for Tensile, Compressive, and Flexural Creep and Creep-Rupture of Plastics. Am. Soc. Test. Mater.
  31. ASTM D3039/D3039M-17 (2017). Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials. Am. Soc. Test. Mater.


Received 17 January 2018

Published 30 June 2018