|Journal||Journal of Mechanical Engineering – Problemy Mashynobuduvannia|
|Publisher||A. Pidhornyi Institute for Mechanical Engineering Problems
National Academy of Science of Ukraine
|ISSN||2709-2984 (Print), 2709-2992 (Online)|
|Issue||Vol. 24, no. 2, 2021 (June)|
|Cited by||J. of Mech. Eng., 2021, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 16-23|
Kostiantyn V. Avramov, A. Pidhornyi Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharskyi St., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukrainе), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, ORCID: 0000-0002-8740-693X
Borys V. Uspenskyi, A. Pidhornyi Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of NASU (2/10, Pozharskyi St., Kharkiv, 61046, Ukrainе), e-mail: Uspensky.email@example.com, ORCID: 0000-0001-6360-7430
Ihor I. Derevianko, Yuzhnoye State Design Office (3, Krivorizka Str, Dnipro, 49008, Ukraine), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, ORCID: 0000-0002-1477-3173
FDM 3D printed honeycombs are investigated. A honeycomb is composed of regular hexagonal cells. A honeycomb is 3D printed so that the fused filament runs along the walls of its cells. We emphasize that the thickness of these walls is one or two times the thickness of the fused filament. When calculating the mechanical properties of a honeycomb, its walls are considered as a Euler-Bernoulli beam bending in one plane. To describe honeycombs, a homogenization procedure is used, which reduces a honeycomb to a homogeneous orthotropic medium. An adequate analytical calculation of the mechanical properties of this medium is the subject of our research. Analytical formulae for calculating the mechanical properties of honeycombs are presented. To assess the adequacy of the calculation results, the analytical data are compared with the results of simulation in the commercial ANSYS package. For this, the mechanical properties of the honeycombs made of the ULTEM 9085 material are determined numerically. To assess these properties, from a large number of analytical formulae are selected those that predict them adequately. As a result of calculations, an analytical prediction of all mechanical properties is obtained, with the exception of the in-plane shear modulus of a honeycomb. This is due to the fact that to simulate such a shear modulus one has to use a three-dimensional theory that does not have an adequate analytical description. A thin aluminum honeycomb was considered. In the future, three-layer structures with such a honeycomb will be investigated. Analytical results for ULTEM 9085 and aluminum honeycombs are similar.
Keywords: honeycomb, mechanical properties, orthotropic material, additive technology.
Full text: Download in PDF
- Kelsey, S., Gallatly, R. A., & Clark, B. W. (1958). The shear modulus of foil honeycomb cores. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 30, iss. 10, pp. 294–302. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb033026.
- Gibson, L. J., Ashby, M. F., Schajer, G. S. & Robertson, C. I. (1982). The mechanics of two-dimensional cellular materials. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 382, iss. 1782, pp. 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1982.0087.
- Abd El-Sayed, F. K., Jones, R., & Burgess, I. W. (1979). A theoretical approach to the deformation of honeycomb based composite material. Composites, vol. 10, iss. 4, pp. 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-4361(79)90021-1.
- Meraghni, F., Desrumaux, F. & Benzeggagh, M. L. (1999). Mechanical behaviour of cellular core for structural sandwich panels. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 30, iss. 6, pp. 767–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(98)00182-1.
- Becker, W. (1998). The in-plane stiffnesses of a honeycomb core including the thickness effect. Archive of Applied Mechanics, vol. 68, pp. 334–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004190050169.
- Shi, G. & Tong, P. (1995). The derivation of equivalent constitutive equations of honeycomb structure by two scale method. Computational Mechanics, vol. 15, pp. 395–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00350354.
- Masters, I. G. & Evans, K. E. (1996). Models for the elastic deformation of honeycomb. Composite Structures, vol. 35, iss. 4, pp. 403–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8223(96)00054-2.
- Malek, S. & Gibson, L. (2015). Effective elastic properties of periodic hexagonal honeycombs. Mechanics of Materials, vol. 91, pp. 226–240. 10.1016/j.mechmat.2015.07.008.
- Sorohan, S., Constantinescu, D. M., Sandu, M., & Sandu, A. G. (2018). On the homogenization of hexagonal honeycombs under axial and shear loading. Part I: Analytical formulation for free skin effect. Mechanics of Materials, vol. 119, pp. 74–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.09.003.
- Chen, D.-H., Horii, H., & Ozaki, O. (2009). Analysis of in-plane elastic modulus for a hexagonal honeycomb core: Analysis of Young’s modulus and shear modulus. Journal of Computational Science and Technology, vol. 3, iss. 1, pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1299/jcst.3.1.
- Hohe, A. J. & Becker, W. (2002). Effective stress-strain relations for two-dimensional cellular sandwich cores: Homogenization, material models, and properties. Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol. 55, iss. 1, pp. 61–87. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1425394.
- Avramov, K. V. & Pellicano, F. (2006). Dynamical instability of cylindrical shell with big mass at the end. Reports of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, iss. 5, pp. 41–46.
- Avramov, K. (2003). Bifurcations of parametric oscillations of beams with three equilibria. Acta Mechanica, vol. 164, pp. 115–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00707-003-0022-9.
- Avramov, K. V. (2002). Nonlinear beam oscillations excited by lateral force at combination resonance. Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 257, iss. 2, pp. 337–359. https://doi.org/10.1006/jsvi.2002.5043.
- Gibson, L. J. & Ashby, M. F. (1988). Cellular Solids: Structure and properties. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 357 p. https://doi.org/10.1002/adv.1989.060090207.
- Derevianko, I., Avramov, K., Uspenskyi, B., & Salenko, A. (2021). Eksperymentalnyi analiz mekhanichnykh kharakterystyk detalei raket-nosiiv, vyhotovlenykh za dopomohoiu FDM adytyvnykh tekhnolohii [Experimental analysis of mechanical characteristics of parts of launch vehicles manufactured using FDM additive technologies]. Tekhnichna mekhanika – Technical Mechanics, iss. 1, pp. 92–100 (in Ukrainian). https://doi.org/10.15407/itm2021.01.092.
- Uspenskiy, B., Avramov, K., Derevyanko, I., Biblik, I. (2021). K raschetu mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik sotovykh zapolniteley, izgotovlennykh additivnymi tekhnologiyami FDM [On calculations of mechanical properties of honeycomb produced by FDM manufacturing]. Aviatsionno-kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologiya – Aerospace Technic and Technology, no. 1, pp. 14–20 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.32620/aktt.2021.1.02.
Received 19 April 2021
Published 30 June 2021